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Old 11-05-2018, 07:00 AM   #1
sonicowl
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Default video processor: multiply with alpha, compositing

I'm looking for a way to crop video on one track with black/white image (or video) on a second track. Like this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_compositing

Two tracks get combined into one. Result would be partly seethrough video - transparent on black parts and fully visible on white parts. Video editors have this, but I cannot figure out how to do it in Reaper (apart from basic croping to rectangle).

Has anybody already written preset for video processor that can do this, and can share it?

Otherwise, which function in video processor would be appropriate for this task?

Thank you for help.

Last edited by sonicowl; 11-05-2018 at 07:21 AM.
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Old 11-05-2018, 08:43 AM   #2
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This would be a great addition.

I guess it could be kind of a combination off "chroma key" and "image overlay". Also PS layer modes like multiply, darken, lighten etc. would be a great addition. This stuff is standard in every video software. And i guess its not hard to do.

Video processor and video in Reaper has such a huge potential. More people should code presets. I tried to write and change some presets but as a noob its pretty hard to put something together. Even the Reaper internals couldn't help me.
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Old 11-05-2018, 07:05 PM   #3
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sonicowl View Post
Otherwise, which function in video processor would be appropriate for this task?
I think what you are looking for is "gfx_mode"

This blends the next (or previous, depending what you have set in project settings) 2 video tracks after the track which has this video processor active:
Code:
*snip* see below
From the docs:
Quote:
gfx_mode:
0 = normal
1 = additive
3 = multiply (very different in YUV vs RGBA)
17 = (dest + src*gfx_a)*.5 + .5 (only valid when using YUV colorspaces)
18 = dest + (src-0.5)*gfx_a*2.0 (only valid when using YUV colorspaces)
19 = absolute difference: abs(dest-src)*gfx_a (only valid when using YUV colorspaces)
...

Last edited by wwwmaze; 11-06-2018 at 03:36 AM.
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Old 11-06-2018, 12:43 AM   #4
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Many thanks.

But where are the docs? Didn't even know there are docs for that.
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Old 11-06-2018, 02:57 AM   #5
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Either press F1 when the mouse cursor is within the editor or use this online documentation: https://mespotin.uber.space/Mespotin...API_Video.html


On another glimpse I'm not even convinced if blending works the way I think (or the linux implementation of video processor maybe has a bug).

2 observations:
1. After I blend-in completely white pixels while adding both images/videos I still can see some non-white pixels. Same problem with subtraction, the picture should be black but I also see non-black pixels.
2. Multiplying makes the resulting image/video lose its color.
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Old 11-06-2018, 03:10 AM   #6
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Quote:
Originally Posted by wwwmaze View Post
Either press F1 when the mouse cursor is within the editor or use this online documentation: https://mespotin.uber.space/Mespotin...API_Video.html


On another glimpse I'm not even convinced if blending works the way I think (or the linux implementation of video processor maybe has a bug).

2 observations:
1. After I blend-in completely white pixels while adding both images/videos I still can see some non-white pixels. Same problem with subtraction, the picture should be black but I also see non-black pixels.
2. Multiplying makes the resulting image/video lose its color.
Many thanks. Unfortunately my F1 key is broken.

And yes, I also discovered a very strange blend mode behavior. It could be because of the different color spaces. Have no idea actually. I only know those Photoshop blend modes and they react much different from that.

It also does not blend drawn colors from other tracks. (Tried to blend in "solid color" from reaper blog.) Only video signals work.
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Old 11-06-2018, 03:29 AM   #7
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Eliseat View Post
color spaces
Thx for that and for testing. Inserting colorspace='RGBA' helps:
Code:
//@param1:blend 'blend' 0.5 0 1 0.5 0.01
//@param2:mode 'blend mode' 0 0 19 0 1
//@param4:sub 'subtraction' 0 0 1 0 1

// blends the next 2 video tracks
colorspace='RGBA';
gfx_blit(input_track(0));
gfx_a=blend*(sub?-1:1);
gfx_mode=sub?1:mode;
gfx_blit(input_track(1));

Though I'm not sure if I'm really supposed to change that, according to the docs:
Quote:
colorspace: current rendering colorspace, e.g. 'RGBA', 'YV12', or 'YUY2'. you can override this with extreme caution.
Quote:
Originally Posted by Eliseat View Post
It also does not blend drawn colors from other tracks. (Tried to blend in "solid color" from reaper blog.) Only video signals work.
Hmm this seems to work here.
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Old 11-06-2018, 03:32 AM   #8
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There is definitely something going on. I loaded a video and some self made png files with color gradients into Reaper. Sometimes it doesn't blend anything. I even can't blend from one source to another.

I will go on and make some tests today.

Edit: Was my fault. The track order was messed up. Works great with gradients and greyscale patterns. Nice work!

Last edited by Eliseat; 11-06-2018 at 03:43 AM.
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Old 11-06-2018, 03:40 AM   #9
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Strange, blending with images, videos and other FX's works great here now.
If you want I can take a look at your project.
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Old 11-06-2018, 04:09 AM   #10
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Quote:
Originally Posted by wwwmaze View Post
Strange, blending with images, videos and other FX's works great here now.
If you want I can take a look at your project.
ok, everything is fine as long as only 1 of both inputs is a video processor FX but I'm now having problems if both inputs are FX's and the color-space is 'RGBA' (video output gets stuck).
Not sure how to solve that.

What i've tested so far:

blend video-video: check
blend video-image: check
blend video-fx: check
blend image-image: check
blend image-fx: check
blend fx-fx: not working
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Old 11-06-2018, 04:09 AM   #11
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wwwmaze,

this is just amazing. Really. Such a few lines make such a huge outcome. Just take some beautiful colorful gradients and add or multiply them over a video. Wonderful!
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Old 11-06-2018, 04:18 AM   #12
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Video


Gradient


Normal mode


Adding


???
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Old 11-06-2018, 04:22 AM   #13
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Old 11-06-2018, 04:29 AM   #14
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That's really cool Eliseat

Just be careful if any of the inputs is generated by a video-processor FX itself. I'm running into a bug in either my code (most probably) or because of a limitation of the video processor implementation.
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Old 11-06-2018, 04:51 AM   #15
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This one lets you specify RGBA color-space and set inputs manually (set both to -1 for next and second next video track):
Code:
//@param1:blend 'blend' 0.5 0 1 0.5 0.01
//@param2:mode 'blend mode' 0 0 19 0 1
//@param4:sub 'subtraction' 0 0 1 0 1
//@param6:in1 'in 1 (-1=next video track)' -1 -1 50 0 1
//@param7:in2 'in 2 (-1=second next)' -1 -1 50 0 1
//@param9:csp 'colorspace (1=RGBA)' 0 0 1 0 1

csp ? colorspace='RGBA';
gfx_blit(in1==-1 ? input_track(0) : in1);
gfx_a=blend*(sub?-1:1);
gfx_mode=sub?1:mode;
gfx_blit(in2==-1 ? input_track(1) : in2);
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Old 11-06-2018, 05:06 AM   #16
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Quote:
Originally Posted by wwwmaze View Post
ok, everything is fine as long as only 1 of both inputs is a video processor FX but I'm now having problems if both inputs are FX's and the color-space is 'RGBA' (video output gets stuck).
Not sure how to solve that.

What i've tested so far:

blend video-video: check
blend video-image: check
blend video-fx: check
blend image-image: check
blend image-fx: check
blend fx-fx: not working
Quote:
Originally Posted by wwwmaze View Post
Just be careful if any of the inputs is generated by a video-processor FX itself. I'm running into a bug in either my code (most probably) or because of a limitation of the video processor implementation.
It seems the limitation is just my wimpy CPU when processing rgba videos, so I take everything back.
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Old 11-06-2018, 07:54 AM   #17
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wwwmaze, thank you for help.
I wish there was some kind of manual for video processor. F1 gives a list of functions, but no tips on how to use them properly.
Cockos company, can you please hire someone to put together a manual for video processor? It is such a wonderful feature of Reaper, but it is such a pain to use it atm. Please...
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Old 11-06-2018, 12:56 PM   #18
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wwwmaze,

as I see how clear and simple the code for this presets looks like, would it be possible to take the same two inputs but using the second input as greyscale to make the first video transparent depending on the greyscale? This would be the principle of an alpha channel and would be a milestone. Imagine frames and blend modes of all kinds. The possibilities are endless for this. Just create a black and white pattern, use the alpha preset to blend the video depending of the pattern in.

I have no idea how this could work but in my mind it should look like this. Input one is a clear screen, second is the video, third is the greyscale video or image. Maybe the "image overlay" preset or the "chroma key" could help in this case.

Anyway. I'm really, really thankful for your efforts and for Owls contributions too. I think the video thing is way to underrepresented and it would be cool to have a section in the forum to gather information, presets and manual for the video interested people.

Greetings
Eli
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Old 11-06-2018, 04:19 PM   #19
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sonicowl View Post
wwwmaze, thank you for help.
I wish there was some kind of manual for video processor. F1 gives a list of functions, but no tips on how to use them properly.
Cockos company, can you please hire someone to put together a manual for video processor? It is such a wonderful feature of Reaper, but it is such a pain to use it atm. Please...
Yes documentation is a bit sparse. My only pointers I can give are
a) set up an example project, save an test preset and put in all functions to see what they output in certain cases (especially handy for all those input* functions).

To plot to screen this could be a useful helper function:
Code:
curX=0;
function m(msg) local(s,h,id) (
  id = match("%s",msg) ? "%s" : msg|0===msg ? "%d" : "%f";
  sprintf(s=#,id, msg);
  gfx_str_measure(s,0,h);
  gfx_set(1,1,1,1);
  gfx_str_draw(s,0,curX);
  curX+=h;
);

gfx_blit(0);

// usage
m(input_count());
m("spam:");
m(input_track_count());
m($pi);
b) there is some overlap to JSFX and EEL scripts. So if you come across an unknown function make sure to consult the resources for these (docs, forum search, etc). Notice that sometimes functions are named similarly but parameters are switched.
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Old 11-06-2018, 08:47 PM   #20
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Eliseat View Post
wwwmaze,

as I see how clear and simple the code for this presets looks like, would it be possible to take the same two inputs but using the second input as greyscale to make the first video transparent depending on the greyscale? This would be the principle of an alpha channel and would be a milestone. Imagine frames and blend modes of all kinds. The possibilities are endless for this. Just create a black and white pattern, use the alpha preset to blend the video depending of the pattern in.

I have no idea how this could work but in my mind it should look like this. Input one is a clear screen, second is the video, third is the greyscale video or image. Maybe the "image overlay" preset or the "chroma key" could help in this case.

Anyway. I'm really, really thankful for your efforts and for Owls contributions too. I think the video thing is way to underrepresented and it would be cool to have a section in the forum to gather information, presets and manual for the video interested people.

Greetings
Eli
Cheers Eli, glad I can help. Is this what you had in mind?
Code:
//@param1:byCl 'bypass clear screen' 0 0 1 0 1
//@param2:byVi 'bypass video' 0 0 1 0 1
//@param3:byMask 'bypass mask' 0 0 1 0 1

//@param5:alCl 'alpha clear screen' 0.5 0 1 0.5 0.005
//@param6:modeCl 'mode clear screen' 0 0 19 0 1

//@param8:csp 'colorspace (1=RGBA)' 1 0 1 0 1

// next (or previous, depending on project settings) video track: clear screen
// track after next track: video
// third closest track: mask

gfx_set(0,0,0,1);
gfx_fillrect(0,0,project_w,project_h);

csp ? colorspace='RGBA';

!byVi ? (gfx_a=1;  gfx_mode=0; gfx_blit(input_track(1)););  // overlay
!byMask ? (gfx_a=-1; gfx_mode=1; gfx_blit(input_track(2)););  // subtraction
!byCl ? (gfx_a=alCl;  gfx_mode=modeCl; gfx_blit(input_track(0)););
I was unsure about the term 'clear screen' and how to blend it into the selective transparent layer so there are parameters for alpha+blend mode.

Last edited by wwwmaze; 11-06-2018 at 09:01 PM.
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Old 11-07-2018, 12:38 AM   #21
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Hi wwwmaze,

that's again pretty cool. Many thanks But I guess "clear screen" was a bit weird as description, it was meant as the transparent layer. You did exactly what I suggested but one thing was the main intention: To hard mask video a over video b. At the moment video a blends in to video b thru blend modes AND alpha from the third layer. But its not possible to have 100% video a (white mask) over 100% video b (black mask). Would this be possible? I'll show what I mean:

Video a


video b


Alpha


Blend 0.5


Blend 0.5 blend mode add! <- corrected! (Was not blend 1.0)
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File Type: jpg Bild_2018_11_07_08_32_39_287.jpg (5.6 KB, 412 views)
File Type: jpg Bild_2018_11_07_08_33_35_846.jpg (29.5 KB, 411 views)
File Type: jpg Bild_2018_11_07_08_33_46_582.jpg (35.2 KB, 409 views)

Last edited by Eliseat; 11-07-2018 at 06:59 AM.
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Old 11-07-2018, 12:48 AM   #22
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Blend 0


This is blend 0 or 100% "video a" with mask. But it would be perfect to have the ability to hard blend this state over 100% of "video b". So all the black should be "video b". Why? Imagine a video with a view thru a window. You could then blend in a complete other video in the window frame to replace for example a wood with a beach. Or imagine a black mask with white moving clouds which then could layer "video a" as cloud over "video b".

At the moment that's possible with image overlay. But only for still images in PNG format. Can you see the potential?
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Old 11-07-2018, 05:19 AM   #23
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Eliseat View Post
This is blend 0 or 100% "video a" with mask. But it would be perfect to have the ability to hard blend this state over 100% of "video b". So all the black should be "video b". Why? Imagine a video with a view thru a window. You could then blend in a complete other video in the window frame to replace for example a wood with a beach. Or imagine a black mask with white moving clouds which then could layer "video a" as cloud over "video b".
I'm sorry but I'm a bit confused. I think I understand your last post, you would like to have it like that?



So this would be video b completely blended in, aka blend=1.0. But what is the image showing you labeled "Blend 1.0" then?
Specifically what is the difference between images "Blend 0.5" and "Blend 1.0". For me "Blend 1.0" just looks a bit brighter.

Are your pictures showing the current state or how you'd like it to be?

If the former, could you please create 4 or 5 mock-up pictures showing blend=0, blend=0.33, blend=0.66 and blend=1? Thank you.
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Old 11-07-2018, 06:54 AM   #24
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I understand your confusion as I used a blend mode not the normal blend. That's why the blend 0.5 looks a bit darker than expected.

And yes, your picture shows exactly what I meant. A complete masking of video a without blending. This would be great and extremely useful for every video composer.

Many thanks

Edit: I've corrected the picture title as it wasn't blend 1.0. Instead I changed the blend mode again. Blend 1.0 of course shows "video b" complete. Sorry, was in a hurry.

Last edited by Eliseat; 11-07-2018 at 07:06 AM.
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Old 11-07-2018, 11:10 AM   #25
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can you please provide a couple of mockup pictures (done in photoshop/gimp/etc) how the end result of the new preset would look like (rather than what the preset is currently doing) using different blend amounts, all with the same blend mode (best would be normal mode = overlay/replace; no adding/subtracting/multiplying/etc)

sry really don't know how to go from here
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Old 11-07-2018, 03:44 PM   #26
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Hi wwwmaze,

I didn't want to confuse you. I'm really happy with what you've shared already. And my English is maybe to bad to describe my intention as effective as it should be.

So the preset you made is pretty amazing. We now have two videos which can get blended per mode AND alpha. The only thing that actually isn't possible is the mockup picture you posted yourself:


Maybe its to complicated to achieve this inside your blend preset. Would it be easier to do it separately? To pin it down: we have three tracks with "Video a", "Video-b" and alpha. "Video a" covers "Video b" completely except if "Video a" gets transparent from alpha. Blacks make 100% transparent. Whites make 100% opaque. 50% gray blend 50% of "video a" in normal mode (or adjustable mode as you did).

Here the example:
Video a


Video b


Alpha


Blend thru Alpha normal mode (Left and right 50%, middle 0% and 100%)


Blend thru Alpha - mode multiply (100% shines thru because of blend mode)


Practically this is what you already made but with one difference: The Alpha black doesn't turn "video a" to black instead makes "video a" completely transparent.

If this is to complicated, please don't feel pushed. I don't want to hustle you.

Many thanks
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Old 11-07-2018, 03:49 PM   #27
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I think my stupid "clear screen" did a great mess respective the understanding of how your blend mode preset works.

But how could it be called?
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Old 11-07-2018, 04:28 PM   #28
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Ah thanks, everything makes sense now.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Eliseat View Post
I think my stupid "clear screen" did a great mess respective the understanding of how your blend mode preset works.
No it's just old me, over-complicating things (like usual)

Will return to cute fluffy cats tomorrow.
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Old 11-08-2018, 05:45 PM   #29
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Give that a try Eli. It's probably not very efficient because it replaces the alpha of the foreground on pixel level.
I couldn't find another way, apart from chroma-keying with gfx_keyedblit maybe.

PHP Code:
// Selective Blender
// blends parts of the foreground defined by the
// grey-level of a reference (mask) into the background
// 
// Track-order (depending on project settings): 
// VideoProcessor - background - foreground - mask

//@param1:blend 'blend amount' 1 0 1 0.5 0.01
//@param2:mode 'blend mode' 0 0 19 0 1

//@param4:sub 'subtract?' 0 0 1 0 1

oldCS=colorspace;
colorspace='RGBA';

bg=input_track(0);
fg=input_track(1);
mask=input_track(2);

gfx_blit(bg);

gfx_dest fsMask gfx_img_resize(fsMask,project_w,project_h);
gfx_blit(mask);

gfx_dest fsFg gfx_img_resize(fsFg,project_w,project_h);
gfx_blit(fg);

gfx_evalrect(0,0,project_w,project_h,
    
"a=max(0,min(255,0.2989*sr+0.5870*sg+0.1140*sb));",
    
0,fsMask);

gfx_dest=-1;
gfx_a=blend*(sub?-1:1);
gfx_mode=(sub?1:mode)|0x10000;
gfx_blit(fsFg);

colorspace=oldCS

Last edited by wwwmaze; 11-09-2018 at 07:04 AM. Reason: enable multiprocessing
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Old 11-09-2018, 02:14 AM   #30
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It works!



Many thanks for all of your effort.

Last edited by Eliseat; 11-09-2018 at 02:23 AM.
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Old 11-09-2018, 02:34 AM   #31
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cat video, a simple photoshop gradient and an alpha video of white smoke.



Wake up, cat! There's silly smoke around you!
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Old 11-09-2018, 02:46 AM   #32
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Waving cat video, sleeping cat video, transition with clouds video.



Those color errors only occur because of the bad gif export.
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Old 11-09-2018, 03:19 AM   #33
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cat sleeping, cat waving, tint drops as alpha with automated zoom to blend over!

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Old 11-09-2018, 06:20 AM   #34
sonicowl
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Amazing. Great preset. Thank you both.

How to blend more things over this?
What if I want to add some fancy animated sparkly text over it, rendered on black background, that also has animated alpha transition?
Would you use folder tracks? Put cat videos+alpha in bottom and animated text in upper folder? Then somehow blend folders together? How would that work? With 3rd folder to include previous two??? Doable at all?
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Old 11-09-2018, 07:11 AM   #35
wwwmaze
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Very cool (and cute) demos Eli!

I somehow managed to disable multiprocessing for the main function in the latest preset. Fixed it now, so please copy/paste again. Sorry for the inconvenience.

Quote:
Originally Posted by sonicowl View Post
How to blend more things over this?
What if I want to add some fancy animated sparkly text over it, rendered on black background, that also has animated alpha transition?
Would you use folder tracks? Put cat videos+alpha in bottom and animated text in upper folder? Then somehow blend folders together? How would that work? With 3rd folder to include previous two??? Doable at all?
Don't have the time to test currently, but yes, that's how I'd probably do it, using folder tracks.
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Old 11-09-2018, 08:46 AM   #36
Eliseat
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sonicowl,

I put wwwmaze's Alpha preset on a folder and just sorted the videos inside. Works pretty well. To achieve what you meant you only need to create a new folder on top of it with the black screen etc. But keep in mind that this really sucks cpu and graphic power.

Sparkling text could be done in Photoshop. Create a black screen with white text. Export it. Create an Alpha file from it maybe as a framing of the text. Then use a colorful video as the effect to only show on the white pixels of the Alpha.

Edit: Its not as easy as I expected. The problem is. If you fade out video A or B, the Alpha video stays and makes it impossible to blend altogether into another folder. I'll think about it. Maybe there is another way to achieve it.



As you can see, the stage lightning which only showed around the text keeps going after fading out the alpha. But fading the stage lightning out lets the alpha channel show up because its not covered anymore.

I made this simple text flickering with a black and white text title as video A, then I put a blank video processor with stage lightning as video B at the second position to blend it in via the alpha channel.
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Old 11-09-2018, 09:16 AM   #37
Eliseat
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How could we blend a whole folder? Put the alpha blending folder into another folder with just an opacity preset?

I will make a few tests. But before I have to feed my kids.

Edit: wwwmaze, it works now wáy more fluidly for me. Many thanks.
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Old 11-09-2018, 08:14 PM   #38
wwwmaze
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Quote:
Originally Posted by wwwmaze View Post
Don't have the time to test currently, but yes, that's how I'd probably do it, using folder tracks.
This won't work. I was in a hurry and for a moment I forgot how video works in reaper.

Every track below a video-processor FX (or above, depending on project settings), containing a video item at the current play time, can be referenced by this processor by an index starting from 0. This index strictly increases as we go down no matter if a track is in a folder or not.
A track with a video-processor FX is also considered a video track and gets its own index.

This is how indexing looks for my "selective blender" preset
(* denotes where the FX is placed)

Code:
track*
background                                 index: 0
foreground                                 index: 1
mask                                       index: 2
or if we place the FX into a folder
Code:
parent track*
---background                              index: 0
---foreground                              index: 1
---mask                                    index: 2
And this is how indexing for stacked FX' would look like.
I.e. video processor (b) would like to use the output of (a) as foreground.
Code:
parent track* b
---background b                            index: 0
---parent track* a (= foreground b)        index: 1
------background a                         index: 2
------foreground a                         index: 3
------mask       a                         index: 4
---mask       b                            index: 5
So (b) would mistake background (a) as mask (b).
For the preset I'm not sure how to solve this other then maybe letting the user manually assign tracks (we would need 3 new params).

Putting videos in a folder still makes sense imo to visually isolate stuff but one should keep in mind that it doesn't work like with audio.

The best approach imo (and a good feature request) would be if video tracks/items would only be accessible if they have the same folder depth. Or some function to query the folder depth.
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Old 11-09-2018, 08:57 PM   #39
EpicSounds
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I forget who made the kaleidoscope code, but thank you! I used it in my last Q&A video.
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Old 11-09-2018, 09:41 PM   #40
wwwmaze
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Quote:
Originally Posted by EpicSounds View Post
I forget who made the kaleidoscope code, but thank you! I used it in my last Q&A video.
Cool. I'm still planning to do other base shapes than rectangle. Stay tuned.
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